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Use a table to distinguish between the different teaching and learning strategies, namely problem-based learning, inquiry learning and issue-based learning in Social Sciences. Refer specifically to the following criteria: Definition, principles, learning process, roles of the teacher and learners as well as assessment. Refer to the Social Science (Geography section) (Grades 4 to 6) and identify possible themes where the different teaching and learning strategies could be implemented. Plan a learning activity for each of the teaching and learning strategies by referring to the identified geography themes in Social Sciences.


The use of maps can be very successfully to point out interrelationships on earth. One could, for instance, use a population distribution map and rainfall map of South Africa to demonstrate the interrelationship between rainfall and population distribution. In the example, rainfall influences population distribution and not vice versa. Use any two maps to highlight the interrelationships that may occur in Geography. Clearly indicate how you could use map-reading and map interpretation questions to highlight the interrelationship between the two maps to your learners. (Keep in mind that you must guide learners by questions to discover the interrelationship by themselves. Draw a clear distinction between questions on map reading and the interpretation of maps. See the example in the notes.)


In the Social Sciences CAPS document (Intermediate Phase) Social Sciences teachers have to deal with the theme “Map Skills” in Grade 5. (Refer to the Social Sciences CAPS Grade 5 p. 25). Plan one lesson (30 minutes each) that deal with this theme as well as the eight points of the compass. You are expected to formulate lesson objectives (2), develop two teaching and learning activities that support the constructivist approach (2), and teaching and learning materials that you will use during the lesson (2). Also clearly indicate with each teaching and learning activity the roles of the teacher and learners (2), as well as who will be assessed, and how, to determine whether learners have achieved the lesson objectives (2). Implement enquiry learning as a teaching and learning strategy in the lesson.


  • Make an analysis between the difference of rural and urban settlements in South Africa.
  • Evaluate the economic and social advantages and disadvantages of dispersed rural settlements and rural nucleated settlements. Illustrate with examples.
  • By using sketches distinguish between the different varieties of rural nucleated settlements.
  • Critically discuss the factors that influence the type, site and structural forms of rural settlements. Refer specifically in your answer to the physical environment, traffic routes and infrastructure, defence and agricultural-economic factors.



Rural settlements: Land reform (Inquiry learning)


“Two and half centuries of conquest and settlement by European colonists deprived Africans of most of land in South Africa. Since the election of a new government for South Africa in 1994, there was no real progress made with land reform. Some Black farmers in South Africa are reaching a point where they want to invade white commercial farmers’ land. What can the South African government do to help solve land reform without causing famine and negative economic growth?”


The following lesson objectives apply to solve the real world geography problem through inquiry learning.


  • Describe the concept of “land reform” in the South African context.
  • Analyse the negative consequences that land reform might have on South Africa if the government does not perform it in a discreet manner;
  • Identify possible reasons/factors that delay the land reform process in South Africa.


Make a comparison between the three phases of urbanisation and indicate in which phase South Africa may be placed. (Refer to the S-curve).


Identify and argue about possible factors and reasons why people move to cities. Refer specifically to how “agglomeration economies” can promote urban growth.


Discuss the functions of the following towns and give examples of each in South Africa:


a) Transport towns

b) Fishing towns

c) Education towns

d) Mining towns


Use a mind map as teaching and learning support material to summarise the following factors that play a role in the growth of towns and cities:


a) Function

b) Decision making by authorities

c) Site and infrastructure

d) Economic factors


The decisions made by local authorities play an important part in the growth of towns and cities. The local authority of your town (or the town nearest to where you live) approaches you as a geographer to draw up an action plan for them to bring about urban growth. Also make proposals on how to renew the central business district (CBD) and to make it more attractive. Report on which matters will be attended to.