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Goal Setting Case Study QUESTION 1
Goal setting involves the development of an action plan designed to motivate and guide a person or group toward a goal. Goal setting can be guided by goal-setting criteria (or rules) such as SMART criteria. Goal setting is a major component of personal-development and management literature, the goal-setting theory focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects. Each goal set forth by a person is a resemblance of what they are trying to accomplish through their actions and behaviors. Without one’s efforts, their goals cannot be set or accomplished. The harder the specific goal to achieve, the more likely one would be motivated and dedicate their best performance to achieving the desired goal.
Goal Setting Case Study
John, a member of the senior management staff at Lowe’s, was given a Professional Development Plan (PDP), in order to maximize his potential as part of the management team of his store. The goal of the PDP was to ensure that the store was maintaining excellent customer service and improving company and store sales. The PDP would allow John to look at each individual section (self-development and store performance) to see where he needed to improve to achieve standards set forth by the Lowe’s corporate office.
The plan was built on goal-setting theory and included education on how to create S.M.A.R.T. goals to ensure focused changes could be implemented to improve the success of his store. Half-way through the year, John would report his status to his supervisors. If John was able to meet the goals he had established, new goals would be created. If the goals were not met by that time, a more in-depth look would be taken to see what changes may be needed to be able to accomplish those goals.
John realized that if his store were going to be successful, he would first need to take a look at himself to see if he was reaching his maximum potential. Therefore, John decided to first focus on self-development. He knew that the store would not run efficiently if he was not a successful manager. John knew through his years of being a manager that his crew relied on him for encouragement, attitudes, dependability, etc. John also knew that his employees’ morale often reflected his own morale while at Lowe’s.
For each department to be successful, constant improvements needed to be made. John felt the success of each department would have a trickledown effect and enhance the success of the store. Lastly, John had to improve his customer service and store sales to make the store’s overall performance better. Improving in these three areas would give his Lowe’s store a more successful outlook.
John began to research goal-setting theory and learned that for goals to be successful as motivators there are several factors that are necessary. First, there must be acceptance and commitment to the goal. Second, the goals must be specific in their language and must be directly related to a specific end result. Third, they must be difficult enough to pose a challenge but not too difficult that they cannot be achieved. Fourth, there needs to be feedback on when and how the goal was achieved.
The acronym used in goal-setting theory to make certain that goals affect these four factors is S.M.A.R.T. John now needs to develop S.M.A.R.T. goals to apply this theory to the self-development, department development, and the store performance sections of the Professional Development Plan. John learned that the S.M.A.R.T. acronym and how to link it to achieve your goals. As John continued to read more about each specific section of the S.M.A.R.T. goals, he decided to relate them to the way he felt about his current position and ways he can improve himself and his store to make his store better.
1.1 Briefly explain how John would be able to apply S.M.A.R.T criteria for self-development. Ensure that each acronym for smart criteria is linked to self-development for the professional development plan. (10)
1.2 Discuss how John would be able to apply S.M.A.R.T criteria for the store performance. Ensure that each acronym for smart criteria is linked to the store performance for the professional development plan. (10)
1.3 Define the SMART Theory and its acronyms (5)
Goal Setting Case Study QUESTION 2
When it was first discovered a diagnosis of HIV was a certain death sentence. Without the medication on the market, today HIV would become full-blown AIDS in no time. But extensive research and a better understanding of the virus has produced a various medication that can control HIV and AIDS.
Goal Setting Case Study
Mr. A came to a general internal medicine clinic at a university hospital after he tested HIV positive in a previous private clinic. His purpose of the visit was to confirm whether he was really infected with HIV virus. He has never engaged in any high-risk behavior and believed that the positive result of HIV antibody test could not be true.
The patient in his twenties, who was single and worked at a very busy company, developed diarrhea about several months ago. A physician in the previous clinic diagnosed that he had chronic inflammation in his colon and administered oral antibiotics. Bacteria which was causing the symptom was not identified. The first antimicrobial treatment was not effective, and his symptoms continued. Emaciation and general fatigue followed and persisted. He also developed loss of weight and low-grade fever. Several other drugs and interventions had been tried for about 2 months and turned out to be ineffective.
During the medical interventions in the previous clinic, fungus was cultured in his stool and fungal infection in the colon was suspected. The physician explained that the fungal infection was probably induced by preceding antibiotics treatments and discontinued it. At the same time the physician checked HIV antibody test without the patient’s advance permission.
When the positive result came back, the physician disclosed the test result to Mr. A and his elder sister, but no other explanation or no counseling in regard to HIV infection were done. The physician decided to refer Mr. A to a university hospital. He visited the general internal medicine clinic at the university soon after he and his mother got a letter of referral.
Physical examination on his first visit at the clinic revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and low-grade fever. He complained of chronic fatigue and pain in his lower abdomen. He requested a physician who examined him, Dr. B, to repeat the HIV antibody test to make sure that he was not infecting with HIV virus, in other words, that he was not suffering from AIDS. The test was performed.
Dr. B planned to see him a week later to explain a result of the HIV test. On the day of the appointment, the patient did not appear in the clinic. Dr. B checked the test result and found it positive. A few days later, when Dr. B was out of the hospital, his sister visited the clinic and was seen by one of physicians who was working at the clinic. She asked the physician about the test result. He explained her that he could not inform her of the test result and was obliged to disclose the result to the patient himself.
Dr. B phoned the patient and asked him why he did not show up. Mr. A replied that he was too busy to come to the clinic and asked Dr. B to disclose the result to his sister. Mr. A’s sister came to the clinic next week and was disclosed that her brother has been infected with HIV virus and developed AIDS. On her next visit, she reported that she had explained the test result to him. It seemed to her that the patient had anticipated the bad news. She also told Dr. B that his brother thought that there is no chance to cure and he will eventually die no matter what he does.
It is pointless to come to the hospital every two weeks and take expensive drugs whose effect are uncertain if he will die anyway. In fact, Mr. A’s sister explained, he and his family cannot afford to pay the cost of long-term care. To make the matter worse, he has to work if he wants to earn money to pay the medical cost. If he discontinues working, his family cannot live.
He would not have a day off to visit the clinic, fearing his employer becomes suspicious about his health condition. The employer would dismiss him if he knew that Mr. A is infected with HIV. He also thinks that he never wants to be a guinea pig used in human experiments. He has not visited the clinic since the first visit despite his sister’s persuasion that there are a lot of things that current medicine can do for him.
2.1 Can clinical ethics deal with some real problems? Provide seven descriptions. (14)
2.2 Provide the diagnosis and prognosis to the case. (3)
2.3 What would the patient have wanted in this case? (3)
2.4 Describe the background features that might have affected the case. (4)
2.5 Provide any recommendation to Dr. B (1)
Ethics refer to principles, moral, beliefs, duty, conduct and code. In any workplace, ethics is an essential feature of leadership. An ethical person should treat people and environment with respect and an ethical behaviour will always contribute a team with success.
TOPIC: Describe the ethical characteristics and behavioursof ideal student teachers. How could the types of decisions and actions the student teacher engages in be encouraged in a workplace post studying? Adhere to cognitivism, constructivism, connectivism and behaviorism learning theories in your answer/s.
EXAMPLE OF HOW TO FORMULATE AN ASSIGNMENT
TEMPLATE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT: (EXAMPLE)
1 Table of contents
The Table of Contents (as in the case of the REFERENCES) is written on a separate page and is not considered part of the prescribed length of the assignment. If for example, the prescribed length is 6 pages, the Table of Contents will be an additional page. It is important to ensure that each heading from the introduction onwards as well as all other sub-headings are numbered consecutively. It should be in Block Format, see example below.
|Table of Contents||Page|
|2||Secondary school geography curriculum||1|
|Addressing the relevancy issue in general
The relevancy of the current geography curriculum
Contents of the current curriculum a synoptic approach
Teachers’ views of the situation
|3||Improvement on secondary school geography curriculum||4|
|Geography teachers’ perception
Teacher application of the inquiry teaching methods
Geography learners’ perception
Points to remember:
- Main headings should focus on major issues as implied by the title of the assignment.
- Sub-headings reflect other more specific issues, but they should nevertheless relate to the main heading.
- Skip a line before and after each main heading, but NOT between consecutive sub-headings (see the Table of Contents above i.e. 1 and 2 are main headings and 2.1 and 2.2 are subheadings).
- Do not underline any heading.
- Page numbers should be on the right-hand side of the page (only mention 1st page number: see the Table of Contents under Page).
The contents of the assignment should start with a brief introduction. It should clearly reveal the purpose of the assignment. What is the assignment all about? Furthermore, it should not have a direct quotation.
3 Main text
The main text usually consists of a number of headings and if required or feasible, sub-headings under one or more of the main headings. The paragraphs under these various headings should link up with one another. What this implies is that the description should read like a continuous story (the `Golden Thread’) with each succeeding paragraph related to the previous one.
In writing the assignment one must at all times acknowledge the sources of information. Where applicable, this should be done after each paragraph. One may acknowledge the source by starting with the information and end with the source or vice-versa. For example the acknowledgement of a source could be done in the following way:
- Educational management therefore includes such issues as group dynamics, group morale and good human relations (Brazelle, 1983: 6).
- Brazelle (1983: 6) points out that educational management therefore includes such issues as group dynamics, group morale and good human relations.
This means that the information is found on page 6 in a book written by Brazelle, and published in 1983. Do not give a verbatim account of literature consulted paragraph after paragraph; rather read and study the information thoroughly and reproduce in your own words.
Points to remember:
- Number the pages, starting with page 1 on the page which the introduction
- Skip a line before and after each main heading, but not between consecutive sub-headings.
- Do not underline main or sub-headings.
- Skip a line between consecutive paragraphs. Paragraphs should not exceed half a page.
- Do not start with a paragraph heading at the bottom of a previous page; rather start on a next page.
- Sentences should be short and to the point.
- Only write on the one side of a page, like in this guideline.
- Main headings and sub-headings in the text should correspond with the information in the Table of Contents.
All the sources consulted and referenced in the body of the assignment must be included in the REFERENCES on a new page. These sources must be alphabetically arranged according to the surnames of the authors as listed in their respective books. If sources were consulted with the same surname, then the initials of the authors concerned must be taken into consideration in order to keep the references in alphabetical. If it happens that a person consulted more than one book of the same author, then they must be listed alphabetically according to the publication year. It is furthermore important to note that sources stated in the references must not be numbered. The following examples should serve as a pointer on how the bibliography must be set out.
et al. is not written in the bibliography. Write the surnames of all the authors of a source even when they are more than two.
Very important use: Harvard method of referencing
Beukes J.H. 1988. Factors That Influence the Demand for Technikon Education. Journal of Pedagogics, 9(3): 17-26.
Bortner M.A. 1988. Delinquency and Justice: An Age of Crisis. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dryfoos J.G. 1990. Adolescents at Risk: Prevalence and Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mminele S.P.P. 1979. The Teacher’s Basic Tasks and EffectiveTeaching Methods that Go with them. Educamus, 25(2):36-39.
Points to Remember:
- Arrange sources in alphabetical order.
- Do not number the sources.
- Do not include sources that are not reflected in the main text.
- Include all sources that are reflected in the main text.
- Consults at least 5 sources.
- Consulted sources must not be more than 10 year