9050PROJ Project Report Structure Guide – Assignment Answers
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Approx. 500 words
The introduction consists of several paragraphs and typically up to 1.5 pages of your project report.
The introduction should:
- establish the background to the project and briefly introduce the organisation
- state the purpose of the present project and describe its importance (for example, for the organisation)
- outline of the major sections of the project report
In the introduction, clearly establish the context of your project topic. Then, clearly state what this project sets out to achieve. For example, a study of how ecotourism is done in Singapore or South Australia, the characteristics of entrepreneurs in the manufacturing industry in Ghana, or how financial statements are used in Vietnam.
Establish the importance of your topic. For example, ‘The purpose of this project is to explore how ecotourism in Singapore compares to that in Australia’, or ‘The purpose of this research is to identify the four main characteristics of entrepreneurs in the high-tech industry’. Explain why the project matters to you and/or your organisation.
The introduction concludes with an outline of the structure of the project report, providing a brief summary of the sections.
2. REVIEW OF THEORIES AND FRAMEWORKS
Approx. 1,000 words
In your review you need to refer to theories and frameworks by making use of literature. Please remember that everything presented here should be backed by evidence coming from credible literature. Please keep quotations to a minimum. Instead, you should paraphrase. Always provide the reference of your idea (i.e., the literature you have made use of).
First, discuss some general literature about the project’s topic to establish the roots of your discussion. From the example, this could be about ecotourism, entrepreneurial characteristics, or financial reports. As discussed in the introduction section, you would have provided one or two paragraphs about this in the introduction, but it is here where you provide more evidence that you are aware of relevant literature, including journal articles, and sourced reliable information.
Demonstrate that you understand the main theories, frameworks, and relevant principles. This discussion of the literature needs to be succinct. It can include a definition of the core terms followed by a brief description of some of the main themes in the literature, usually starting at a very broad level and then narrowing it down to your topic.
For example, if the field was ecotourism, start by defining the term and selecting the definition you prefer for your project report from among the various alternatives. From there, start at a broad level by saying that the term of ecotourism covers a wide range of tourism from reef activities through bushwalking to nature-based attractions like zoos. Finally, describe the narrow aspect of ecotourism explored by your project report, for example, reef activities.
Please review the example provided for the Review of Theories and Frameworks section.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Approx. 500 words
This section of the project report consists of the following parts:
Here you describe and justify the research methodology and methods you used to conduct your study. Are you doing an organisation (or industry) case research study or are you comparing across organisations? On what basis have you selected the organisation/s (or industry) to study? How many organisations are involved?
Give citations (provide references) when discussing your research methodology.
Data collection and analysis
You must provide precise details of the way in which you collected and analysed your secondary data (qualitatively and/or quantitatively), what data you actually used (such as the use of company annual reports, industry magazines or industry data) and what tools you actually used to analyse the data, as well as any ethical considerations such as the need for organisational consent.
Use references to show that you have learned about the methodology and methods, and how to apply them correctly.
4. PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
Approx. 1,500 words
In this section, look at the data, analyse it and describe the findings. It is often useful to separate analysis from findings. Please read the chapter ‘Summarising and presenting data’ by Bouma et al. (2016) as a background for the presentation of your data (see Resources section in your subject site).
Analysing the data
When reporting what the data showed, start with the overall picture first and then go into the details. Describe the business analytics methods used and the outcome of your data analysis. What does the data suggest that is going on? What are the activities, processes and events that are happening? Describe your findings based on the data analysis. Use tables and graphs (where appropriate) to summarise information and present the evidence.
Reflections on findings
Once you have analysed the data and described the findings for your project, sit back and consider what those findings mean for you, for the chosen organisation and, if relevant, for the industry. Reflect on the findings in relation to yourself, your organisation and industry.
5. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Approx. 750 words
Look at the implications of your findings that may be applicable to:
- the literature you have presented and discussed under the Review of Theories and Frameworks section,
- managers in the organisation or industry,
- other managers, other organisations or other
First, take a step back and explain how your findings relate back to the literature that you have presented and discussed in the Review of Theories and Frameworks section (i.e., the articles that you have cited/referred to earlier). Do your findings confirm existing ideas already written about? Did you find something new that could now be explored further by other researchers?
Secondly, what do you recommend that managers in your industry(ies) do in the future? What advice do you have based on the findings of your research?
Finally, what are the implications of all that you have done, for managers and for policy makers in your country or region? What can other managers, other organisations, and other industries learn from your findings? These implications for other managers may often be the same as for the managers in the case(s) you investigated, but if the case is in an unusual industry or has an unusual structure or strategy, you may be able to develop some additional recommendations.
Approx. 250 words
In this final section, you should summarise your research process and its findings. Identify the contribution made by your project report and tie up the whole package to show that the purpose of the project report (as set out in the introduction) has been achieved.
Then, you should identify challenges or issues that remain unresolved. Note that apart from the challenges or issues that remain unresolved, there should not be any new concepts or ideas suddenly introduced in the conclusion. The conclusion merely ties everything that has been mentioned before into one concise package.
REFERENCES AND APPENDICES
Finally, list your references and include your appendices. As a guide, a 4500-word project report would need approximately 6– 12 relevant references from different sources. These should consist of a large proportion of relevant refereed academic journal articles and references from other credible sources such as books, industry reports and company documents.
In relation to appendices, it is important to note that a reader should not have to look at an appendix to understand the main thrust of the points you are making in your project report. Make sure all your main points are in the body of your project report and then refer the reader to the appendices for detail.
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